Garbage Pollution has become a serious problem in today’s world. According to a report published in Nature journal, the problem of garbage or solid waste is assuming poor proportions at present. By the end of this century, garbage will be collected at a rate of 11 million tons per day throughout the world, more than three times the current rate. It suggests that the generation of the garbage that amounted to 4.5 million tons per day in 2019 will become 7.5 million tons per day by 2025. At present, the population of India produces around 62 million tons of solid waste. Annually. Out of this, 45 million tons of garbage are not treated and disposed of by civic agencies in an unscientific way.
According to the report, urban India generates 109,599 tons of waste per day. Interestingly, EE. UU Urban produces 624,800 tons of garbage per day, which is the highest in the world, while the second-largest is urban China with 520,600 tons per day. The waste generation from India will be more than 376,639 tons per day by 2025, especially with the urban Indian population that is expected to increase to 539 million.
What is Garbage Pollution?
Garbage pollution occurs when the waste collected in landfills rot, spread the smell, and cause air pollution in the surrounding areas, which also creates problems at the administrative level. It is often seen that waste that includes an inorganic material such as iron cans, paper, plastic, pieces of glass or food scraps, animal bones, vegetable peels, etc. They are thrown into the open air. In areas where people keep animals for milk, poultry, or other animals, their feces also pollute the atmosphere. Often, the fire is unleashed in garbage dumps deliberately or accidentally. Air pollution also spreads when garbage is burned outdoors in villages, posing a serious threat to health and the environment.
Rivers are also victims of various types of pollution generated by industrial and domestic waste. The increased elimination of solid waste and sewage, as well as the discharge of industrial effluents into water sources, is ruining the landscape of beautiful places. Tourism prospects are getting a beating.
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What is the Problem with the Garbage?
Garbage generally only contained organic waste that was deposited in the soil, but the proportion of chemical products in the waste increases with the accelerated pace of modern development. In countries like India, things previously used as bags were not harmful. Previously, ceramics were used for liquid substances, and the jute bag was used to transport goods. Now, plastic has changed the situation and a problem has arisen with it because plastic never degrades. Its recycling is possible, but there is no adequate system to deposit it.
Cities are being reduced to garbage dumps. Trash is present everywhere in one form or another, whether there is a town or a city, a temple or a mosque. This problem has been increasing since the last three decades, which has caused health problems and ruin of the environment. Today we are victims of many types of waste, including domestic, agricultural, and industrial waste. Every year tons of waste or garbage is produced, and only one percent is recycled. The rest accumulates in the fields or the streets and at the end, during the rainy season; it reaches the oceans through the rivers.
There are many reasons for the production of garbage. One reason for this is the growing urbanization and prosperity. The stronger the country or city is financial, the more garbage it will produce. It can also be seen by linking poverty and prosperity, competition, and inefficiency. This means that when the aspiration for services is high in the population, there will also be an increase in the amount of waste. Today, China and India are the leading examples of this in the world. Both are taking steps in economic development, but in the process, they are also producing piles of garbage. Other reasons for this include changing lifestyles, lack of waste management and options, and also the big issue of ethics that is rapidly eroding. We assume that we must produce garbage and its elimination is the work of the government. Maybe this is where we are making the major mistake.
How Does the Burning of Garbage Affect the Environment?
The microparticles are those toxic particles whose size is so small that they can enter our body through respiration and damage the lungs in particular. In India and China, all types of garbage, including plastic bottles and electronic items, burn. According to scientists, this is the main cause of air pollution.
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The smoke from the garbage that burns not only poisons the air but also increases the spread of diseases. Recent research has provided information on the emission of toxic gases such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide due to the burning of waste. At the same time, it has been pointed out that particles present in the air are also responsible for many types of diseases.
How Does Garbage Contribute to Air Pollution?
Land, water, and air have become polluted. Garbage is discharged in open spaces. Large factories produce a large amount of smoke. Due to the dust particles in the smoke, the air becomes contaminated. In addition to the spread of bad odor, germs also reproduce in the decomposing garbage that leads to various diseases. Mosquitoes, flies, and mice find a fertile breeding ground in the rises of debris. Garbage, from homes and industrial waste, falls into rivers. This causes the water in the rivers to be contaminated. Therefore, increasing garbage in the home, outside, or in water sources has aggravated the problem of air pollution.
How Can Control Garbage Pollution?
Waste is the main reason for environmental pollution in developed and developing countries. The growing intensity of development is increasingly challenging. The environment becomes disordered due to the improper disposal of garbage. But using modern technology, many developed countries have not only reduced pollution through waste management but have also adopted it as the main source of energy. It is possible to reuse many things thrown in the trash. The waste of resources can be prevented by recycling and the environment can be preserved.
If the municipality’s facilities are not available, the following measures can be taken for small-scale waste disposal:
(i) Composting: This is the process by which domestic waste, such as grass, leaves, food scraps, cow dung, etc., is used to make compost. A pot was dug to prepare the manure with manure and garbage. The size of the well corresponds to the amount of garbage and the space available. In general, a small rural family can unearth up to 1 meter long and 1 meter wide, and 0.8 meters deep. The upper part of the pit should be maintained at a height of one or a half or two feet from ground level. Doing this will not cause rainwater to seep into it.
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Households in the villages can put the household waste and manure in the well. In this way, the manure is ready in about six months. This organic fertilizer must be removed from the hole and covered with dirt. Then it can be used for cultivation.
Benefits of Composting:
- The wasteful grass seeds found in the fields are destroyed by heat.
- Prevents pollution caused by the decomposition of garbage.
- A good fertilizer is prepared from the waste, which helps to increase the yield of the field.
(ii) Vermiculture: This is a process of decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms under controlled conditions. In this, manure is prepared by decomposing organic waste such as vegetable husks, leaves, grass, crop residues, animal waste, and food garbage, etc., set in motion by earthworms. Under this method, a layer of organic waste material is placed in a wooden box or soil pit, and some earthworms are released on it. Garbage is placed on top and water is sprayed to keep moisture. After a while, the worms consume large amounts of garbage or organic waste and make compost, a source rich in organic matter that plays an important role in maintaining soil fertility.
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In rural areas, manure, household waste, and agricultural waste are not used in their entirety. Therefore, villagers must be informed about the production of fertilizers from waste to avoid contamination in rural areas. Together, waste is used in the best way.
Garbage Dumping in Municipal Areas
The proper disposition for the elimination of garbage in the cities is carried out by the municipalities. But citizens must remain vigilant to ensure that work is carried out smoothly and that the waste is transported from a specific place to the municipal collection center from where it can be properly disposed of. If waste management is done through the adoption of modern techniques, the environment can be protected from contamination.
Need for Scientific Management of Garbage
For the proper handling of garbage, we have to make preparations to face this problem in four phases. As a first step, we should try to reduce the amount of waste generated per person. A small reduction in this amount would turn out to be a very large positive movement. The second step should be recycling and reusing. By recycling a ton of iron, not only is the need for iron extraction reduced but the emission of a ton of carbon dioxide is also avoided. In the third phase, we must produce biogas and organic manure from this biological waste that remains after recycling and reuse. Metals, batteries, and light bulbs must be collected separately. The remaining flammable residue must be used as fuel to produce electricity, thereby saving fossil fuels and reducing the number of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere.
In this case, we can learn a lot from Sweden. Sweden reuses and recycles 48 percent of the waste generated in its regions and uses 50 percent of waste as fuel for energy production. You only need to throw away 3% of unproductive waste. There, care is also taken to avoid leakage of poisonous substances from landfills. There is a ban on placing organic and flammable waste in landfills.
In Sweden, the responsibilities of collecting and treating garbage are distributed in such a way that there is no place for an excuse. This work is divided between waste-producing industries, business houses, municipalities, and private companies. Each task is delegated separately, such as garbage collection, transportation to treatment centers, and scientific treatment. It is the responsibility of the municipalities to collect domestic waste. Companies that produce risky waste such as batteries, mirrors, light bulbs and electronic waste must adopt proper management and treatment of the waste.
Underground tanks have been built there for municipal waste, which has been linked with large pipes; The last tip of this network goes up to the loading point. The trash is pushed from the vacuum pressure to the loading point where it is placed in the vehicles and the trash is transported to the treatment centers.
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A network of different types of treatment centers has been established. It is estimated that Sweden produced 5,68,000 MW of power in 2013, for which 14,75,000 tons of domestic organic waste was treated. Biogas is used as fuel for vehicles. Electricity is produced by burning the rest of the flammable residues in the insinuators; Its technique is very advanced, which generates very little gas emissions. Sweden is the most advanced country to produce electricity from waste. Create three megawatts of energy from one ton of waste.
Sweden, in 2013, imported 8,31,400 tons of garbage from other countries in Europe to help them deal with Garbage Pollution. After burning the garbage in the incinerators, the residual ashes are planted in construction works in landfills. Combustible gas, resulting from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas, is also treated to eliminate pollutants.
Finally, the previous example shows that when garbage becomes a means of income, the provisions for its treatment are also strengthened. By investing in the salaries of sanitation workers who participate in the treatment system, their conditions can be further improved. The burden of the public treasury decreases and employment opportunities also arise. If organized well, this system can advance with its strength. As a society, we must rise above the negligence of waste and stop the habit of throwing waste here and there.
This problem arises when we transmit your solution to the government and, consequently, the solution becomes difficult. This change will have to enter into the general thinking of society. With this, we can take serious and proactive measures to eliminate garbage. We must remember that the garbage that is in the wrong place poses serious garbage pollution, but the waste treated appropriately is also a useful resource.
The time has come when we should reconsider our lifestyle. Whatever our population was until three decades ago, the amount of garbage generated was not so great, because our requirements were controlled. Today we do not have any activity that does not produce garbage. What to speak of the cities, even the villages that were known for their decency, peace, and cleanliness have fallen under the influence of garbage. Previously, all the requirements of the villages were managed locally. Now the urbanization has also ventured into rural areas.
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Nylon has replaced the rope used in the manufacture of cots. Now the earthen jars begin to disappear and are replaced by plastic containers. As in cities, mobiles, motorcycles and other modern products have also taken root in the villages. So, there is no difference in the amount of garbage in cities and towns.
We have learned everything from Western countries, but we cannot learn how conscious people are concerning cleanliness, which is maintained not simply as compliance with a rule of law, but as part of moral duty and social obligation there. People abroad consider streets and other public places outside the home as part of their living space. But we believe that our responsibility is simply to clean our house. Consequently, we must inculcate a change in our attitude towards waste or garbage.